Both products utilized to assess the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion.

Both products utilized to assess the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion.

The number of 2 minute intervals coded for each variable related to sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to gauge the frequency with which same sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode for purposes of reliability assessment. This summing led to converting nominal data (for example., presence/absence) at the 2 moment interval degree into regularity counts in the system degree (wide range of periods by which sex that is same behavior happened in the episode). Therefore, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation for the percentage of variance within the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information including the regularity matters utilized right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 had been used because the criterion for appropriate dependability. Both products utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes significantly surpassed this criterion. The ICC for exact exact exact same sex behavior that is sexual .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual sexual dilemmas had been .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.

Information Analyses

To resolve the initial collection of research concerns in connection with prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode degree information ( ag e.g., percentages of episodes containing exact same intercourse sexual behavior and containing speak about sex associated with nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions by using these nominal information. For the 2nd pair of research concerns, we utilized only those implies that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 minute periods ( e.g., range periods per hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). For these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to evaluate team distinctions. Significant f that is omnibus were followed up with post hoc comparisons utilizing Tamhane’s T2 test, which doesn’t assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to spot significant distinctions across teams.

Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content

About one in six programs inside our examples contained any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) linked to nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) to your 2002 2003 period (17.4%) had been significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining Table 1 shows the portion of reveals that contained any exact exact exact same sex intimate behavior and any intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by types of system, and also by time of day aired. The 11 stations were classified into one of three categories: commercial broadcast (which included the three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC as well as Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music entertainment (which included BET and MTV), and premium cable movie (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime) for network type. With regards to period of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. were categorized as late afternoon/early evening and those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.

Note: Within sort of system and period of day aired, percentages into the column that is same don’t share subscripts vary at p dining Table 1 ). Generally in most instances, there was clearly a higher amount of correspondence between a genre’s general positioning for exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual speak about nonheterosexual sexual problems. Also, genres’ standings on both these factors had been fairly stable over the two tv periods.

Three genres had been consistently lower in both types of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or sexual talk associated with nonheterosexuals in a choice of 12 months), news mags (0% for behavior and talk in year 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that tended to possess the greatest proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and film that is feature. Designed for television films and programs classified as “other” additionally had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual intimate content; but, both these categories included just only a few programs (letter = 7), rendering it hard to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, we do not highlight the findings associated with them although we include these latter two genres in the tables.

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